what is middle kingdom of china
China is not only one of the oldest civilizations with archeological evidence dating back further than 5,000 years but it is also the oldest continuous civilization in existence today. China has one of the oldest written languages and is the source of major contributions and inventions of the world. China prides itself in being a major influence throughout Asia with neighbors such as Korea, Vietnam and Japan borrowing culture, physiological and religious beliefs, writing systems and a myriad of other ideas and inventions with martial arts included.
China has been referred by many names throughout the years. It was referred to as Cin in the west after Marco Polo popularized it. It has also been called by other names including Sinea, Cina, Sina, Seres and Cathay which are believed to have been derived from one of the most common western kingdoms known as Qin(Chin).Traditionally, china was referred to as Zhongguo or the Middle Kingdom first appearing in the 6th century B.C during the Zhou Dynasty who believed that they were the center of all civilization.
The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its native language. China, the name in English for the country, was derived from Portuguese in the 16th century, and become popular in the mid 19th century. It is believed to be a borrowing from Middle Persian, and some have traced it further back to Sanskrit. It is also generally thought that the state of Qin that later formed the Qin dynasty is the ultimate source of the name, although there are other suggestions.
Chinese names for China, aside from Zhongguo, include Zhonghua (中華/中华), Huaxia (華夏/华夏), Shenzhou (神州) and Jiuzhou (九州). Han (漢/汉) and Tang (唐) are common names given for the Chinese ethnicity. The People’s Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó) and Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó) are the official names for the two contemporary sovereign states currently claiming sovereignty over the traditional area of China. “Mainland China” is used to refer to areas under the jurisdiction by the PRC usually excluding Hong Kong and Macau.
There are also names for China that are derived from the languages of other ethnic groups other than the Han; examples include “Cathay” from the Khitan language and “Tabgach” from Tuoba.
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